PA1B's QRPp pagePA1B’s QRPp page

My name is Bert and my call is PA1B.
I made this PA1B’s QRPp page, to show the possibilities of QRP and QRPp.
And to show, how I operate with the Lowest Possible Power in CW contest QSO’s.

When the S-meter goes up, I reduce my power.

In most QSO’s I use my Yaesu FT-817, with a CW filter with a bandwidth of 500 Hz.  I always use QRP.  For CW, this is a power of 5 watts, or less.  In many contest QSO’s I use 500 mW or 1 Watt. When the signals strength of the received signal is S9 + 10 dB or more, I reduce my power with a homebrew attenuator.
My antenna is an Inverted Vee, that I use since I started as a HAM.

Since May 2015, I also use indoor Cylinder Dipoles of 12 inch and 15 inch on 21 MHz and 14 MHz, in stead of the inverted V.

Please bookmark this page now.

There is more interesting information, than you can read, in just one visit.

My interests as a HAM

  • to participate in radio contests in CW with QRP or QRPp on HF

  • operating with the lowest possible power
  • 1000 Miles per Watt
  • DXCC hunting with 100 milliwatt or less
  • the use of attenuators
  • design of accurate attenuators
  • the use of homebrew equipment


FT-817 and attenuator PA1BWhen the propagation is very good to extremely good and the received signals are S9 plus 10 dB or more, QSO’s can be made with 100 mW or 50 mW. I use accurate attenuators, built with resistors, from the E12-series, to make QSO’s with less than 500 mW. Using very low power is great fun.

Read further about the use of attenuators  >>

Read further about the interesting PA1B Attenuators   >>

Read further about the interesting PA1B Power Attenuators   >>

PA1B accurate 43 dB Attenuator

Very accurate 43 dB step attenuator - PA1B

Very accurate 43 dB step attenuator – PA1B

This accurate attenuator with 1 dB steps is ideal for accurate measurements.
The attenuator is fast to operate and will bring you a lot of fun in contest QSO’s with very low power.
This easy to build power attenuator is built with good available 2 watt resistors from the E12-series.

Read further about the PA1B accurate 43 dB Attenuator >>

PA1B Fast and accurate 40 dB Power Attenuator for QSO’s

3-7-10-20dB 4x6res (400x100)

Very fast and accurate 40 dB attenuator for QSO’sPA1B

A simple way to reduce the power of your QRP set to milliwatt level, without modifying the set, is the use of attenuators. The combination of 3 dB, 7 dB, 10 dB and 20 dB,  is fast to switch, when you want to increase your power in QSO’s. In one move, one attenuator section is switched OFF and an other is switched ON, to increase the power with a step of 3 db or 4 dB.

PA1B’s QRPp Blog

In addition to this PA1B QRPp page, I started the PA1B’s QRPp Blog >>, which also gives room for comments. In this Blog I give current information. I can up date the Blog at any moment. At the top of the Blog you can find TABs on interesting, “timeless” topics.

Confirmed QSO’s per DXCC and power category

I am proud to present the results of the confirmed DXCC countries, especially those with QRPpp. Look, what is possible with very low power. Please click on this overview of confirmed QSO’s per DXCC country >>  per power category.

 PA1B Power Attenuator Calculator

PA1B Power Attenuator Calculator

All attenuators on this web site are developed with the unique PA1B Power Attenuator Calculator. This calculator in an Excel sheet enables you, to design a very accurate power attenuator for any power you want. So you can reduce the power of your set to QRPp level with out modifying the set. The three fundamental resistors that form a Pi-type power attenuator, are each composed of a number of resistors in parallel. By the use of the parallel circuit the power is distributed across the resistors. The higher the power, the more resistors are required.
I developed the calculator for attenuator sections 1 dB, 2 dB, 3 dB, 7 dB, 10 dB or 20 dB.

Download the PA1B Power Attenuator Calculator

Read further about the PA1B  Power Attenuator Calculator >>

Power Attenuators with carbon resistors from the E12-series for the FT-817


Reduce you power level to QRPpp, less than 100 milliwatts, without modifying your FT-817.
Read the interesting article published in SPRAT 152 >>

Lowest Possible Power

Lowest possible power

QRO means:  Increase power

In many contest QSO’s I try to use the Lowest Possible Power in each QSO. In most QSO’s I answer a CQ, instead of calling CQ myself. First I adjust to a power that is probably just high enough to make the QSO. I answer by giving my call just once or twice. Then I listen. When the station is still calling CQ after my call, my signal is not heard. Only when I notice that my signal is not heard, I increase the power and try again. If the station answers an other station, I wait patiently.
The frequency must be absolutely clear for my signal to be heard. With many other callers in a contest, this can be take some time. But many times suddenly when I am the only station calling, the station repeats my call, immediately correct and gives his report. Most of the time I receive 599. (hi) After sending my exchange, I can log the QSO.
By operating in such a way, I have great fun with very low power and at the same time, I develop my operating skills. Sometimes I start with a power that is probably to low, because in a contest I can not make a second QSO with the same contest station, with a lower power.

In my log I note my power in every QSO. In my log I also have special columns for ”miles” and ”miles per watt
I always use QRP, but I never use the tag /QRP in a contest QSO. I rather use the time to repeat my call, than to give /QRP.

Using the Lowest Possible Power is QRO -ing with low power or very low power


QRPp how is it possible?

From 100 W to 500 mW is 4 S-points

From 100 W to 500 mW is 4 S-poins

A CW signal with a signal strength of S9 is very strong. But a signal with S5 or even lower can be received easily. If a station, that is transmitting with 100 W, is received with a signal strength of S9, then my 500 mW signal will be received with 559. This is 4 S-point down. The signal will not be very strong, but the readability will be good.

When the propagation is good to extremely good, the signal of the 100 W station will be S9 + 10 dB, so I can reduce my power to 50 mW, using an attenuator of 10 dB and still be received with 559. hi When I increase my power, when my signal is not heard, I usually “double” the power. Then I try again. This is a step of 3 dB. This is the optimal step to increase the power.

I noticed in many QSO’s “on the edge“, that when I was heard, but my call was not copied even after repeating 10 times, that my call was immediately copied correct with the doubled power. A step is 1 dB is too small and a step of 10 dB is too large. The steps of 3 dB or 4 dB are an excellent choice of the designers of the Yeasu FT-817

When I use an attenuator, I transmit and listen through the attenuator.

Depending upon the signal strength of the received signal, I use QRP, QRPp or QRPpp. QRP means using a power of 5 watts or less in CW (or 10 watts in phone). QRPp is less then 1 watt, also called milliwatting. QRPpp is the (not official) term I use for a power less than 100 mW. This is also known as ”two digit milliwatting”.

WSPR with attenuators

wsprlogoHow about WSPR with 50 mW, to experience WSPR, just how it is mend to be QRSS and QRPp. Use your QRP-set, with all its nice features to use WSPR with 50 mW or with 10 mW.  Try WSPR with an attenuator, which is designed for a continuous input power of a few watts.

WSPR with an attenuator >>

Some of my homebrew equipment

Building and operating with homebrew equipment is great fun. Click on a picture to select my homemade equipment.

Homebrew transceiver with direct conversion receiver

HDC10 and HDC14 >>

In special contests as the OQRP contest, I use my homebrew CW transceivers HM7, and HDC14

Read the interesting story on my holiday transmatch >> and the Award from Portugal.
Click on the pictures or the links to see the equipment or antenna.

1 milliwatt QSO’s

Over the years I made many QSO’s with very low power. But I only made a few QSO’s with 1 milliwatt. The QSO’s with RT6A over more than 1500 miles and with RU1A over more than 1000 miles, are both good for more than ONE MILLION miles per watt.

Click on the cards to read the interesting stories of the four 1 milliwatt QSO’s >> 


NAQCC 1000 Miles per Watt Award

For years I am a member of the NAQCC. (#2038) The NAQCC club activities are dedicated to QRP/QRPp operation, using CW. When I visited the Award page in August 2011, I got excited by the extensive Award program for QRP and QRPp. Over the years I have made hundreds of confirmed QSO’s with more than 1000 Miles per Watt, but until now, I had not yet applied for an award. So I decided to apply for the 1000 MPW Award. I choose to apply for the QSO with the highest Miles per Watt. This QSO with RT6A was made in the Russian DX contest in August 2007. A few days later, I received the beautiful NAQCC Simple wire antenna 1000 Miles per Watt Award, sent by e-mail, from the Award manager, Rick AA4W.

Check out the interesting Awards of the NAQCC >>. Sri CW only.

Take a look at the winners of the Awards >>. (PA1B #114)

Click on the Award to read the interesting details >> of the 0.85 mW QSO with RT6A.

Reduce your power to QRPpp to work 1000 Miles per Watt

The lower the power the higher the Miles per Watt score

1000 MPW QSO’s

Using very low power, I make many QSO’s with more than 1000 Miles per Watt. After many QSO’s with 50 mW or less, I realized that I had breached the ”1000 MPW boundary” many times.
From the Netherlands to Canada or the USA with 2.5 W is good for a “more than 1000 Miles per Watt QSO”. A QSO with 1 watt to Moscow over 1300 miles will do. But don’t think that you need a very long distance for a ”more than 1000 miles per watt” QSO. From The Netherlands to Germany over more than 50 miles, with 50 mW or to France over more than 100 miles, with 100 mW is also good for ”more than 1000 MPW”

The lower the power the higher the Miles per Watt score. hi


How to calculate the distance and Miles per Watt yourself.

First determine your QTH locator with the excellent: Find your QTH locator by F6FVY Laurent Haas. Zoom in on your city and then click on your street to find your QTH locator.
Then calculate the distance with the fantastic “Miles per Watt calculator” by N9SSA. Copy the two QTH locators and paste them, one by one, into the fields ”Grid-Square”.
Fill in the power in the field ”Watts”. (give 0.05 for 50 mW)

Press the button ”Calculate Distance” and be surprised.  (hi)

My QTH locator is JO22na

My 1000 Miles per Watt QSL card

PA1B 1000 Miles per Watt QSL cardPA1B 1000 Miles per Watt QSL cardFor more than three years, I send a special ”more than 1000 Miles per Watt QSL card”, for many ”more than 1000 Miles per Watt QSO’s” that I make.

Read further about the special 1000 Miles per Watt QSL card of PA1B  >>



If the calculation gives more than 1000 Miles per Watt you can apply for the 1000 Miles per Watt Award that is issued by QRPARCI. This Award is issued to amateurs that RECEIVED or MADE a QSO with a QRP station that exceeds 1000 Miles per Watt, calculated from the power of the QRP station. You can apply, even when you are using QRO or as SWL.

Learn here more about the rules for the Awards >>.


Confirmed countries in QRPp

Over the last years I have received many QSL-cards for QSO’s with very low power, to many DXCC countries. Feel free to have a look in the PA1B QRPp mW DXCC country list, which can be viewed in format.
Notice that this list is only for DXCC Countries confirmed in QRPp.

Changing conditions

Over the years I noticed that the conditions are declining. Sometimes I need more power for the same run of contest QSO’s than a few years before. But the good news is that milliwatting and making QSO’s with more than 1000 Miles per Watt is still possible in EVERY contest. Check out here the influence of the conditions on the Lowest Possible Power, in this spectacular overview of
confirmed QSO’s per year >>.

How I started

When I started as a HAM on HF, I built my first transceiver myself. I had great fun with this homebrew CW QRPp transceiver the (HM7 >>). The rig comes from “Solid State Design for the radio amateur” page 214…218. In the 10 years that I used this CW transceiver, I worked many European countries on 7 MHz with a power of only 500 milliwatts in many normal QSO’s and many contest QSO’s. Homebrew, QRP and CW (Morse code) is a fabulous combination.

After I had worked with this transceiver (HM7) for a half year, I met Piero I5FPJ from Florence. After I mentioned that I worked with 1 watt, Piero reduced his power. I noticed, that when Piero went from 100 watts to 3 watts (-15 dB), the signal was less loud, but the readability of the signal was still good. Only the background noise was stronger. When Piero went from 3 watts, via 2 watts to 1 watt (-5 dB), I noticed that the signal strength only reduced a little bit. And when we were both running 1 watt, the signals were still good, with only more noise in the background. With this knowledge, I reduced the power of the HM7 from 1 watt to 500 milliwatts, a few months later.

In 2001 I bought a Yaesu FT-817. The power is adjustable from 5 W, 2.5 W, 1 W to 500 mW. Most of the time I use to the lowest power and increase the power only when necessary. At home I use an inverted V >> with a 300 ohm ribbon as feeder. The antenna match-unit is a homebrew symmetrical tuner.

To reduce my power further when possible, I built an attenuator of 10 dB and 20 dB. I noticed that for a QSO with 500 mW the received signal must be 599 or stronger. When signals are S9 plus 10 dB I can reduce my power to 50 milliwatts using the rig with an output of 500 mW and an attenuator of 10 dB. (10 dB reduces the power from 500 mW to 50 mW)
Being familiar with 500 mW, the step to QRPpp is easy. QRPpp is a (not official) term that I use for a power lower than 100 milliwatts.