## PA1B Power attenuators

#### Accurate attenuators

Accurate attenuators use very precise resistor values, such as 96.25 ohm or 71.15 ohm in a 10 dB attenuator. These values are not available. But with two or more resistors from the E12-series in parallel, **any** value can be made.

In the **PA1B **Power Attenuators, I use **power** **resistors** of 1 or 2 W, so the attenuator can handle much more power. The use of resistors in parallel leads to a very simple layout.

#### Accurate 10 dB attenuator

### Power distribution

This schematic shows the power distribution in a 10 dB attenuator with a nominal power of 5 watt.

A attenuators can dissipate the **nominal **power for a long time. But without cooling, the resistors of your attenuator will get very hot, when you unleash the **maximum **power for a longer time.

#### Accurate 10 dB power attenuator

Here is the schematic of a 10 dB attenuator for a nominal power of 5 watt.

To avoid overheating, the attenuator is designed for a maximum power of 20 watt.

With a chosen derating of D = 0.25, the maximum power is 4 time as high as the nominal power.

The power is dissipated by power resistors in parallel.

The compound resistor R1 consists of 11 power resistors of 1 watt in parallel, to form a very **accurate** power resistor of 96.25 ohm, with a nominal power of 2.6 watt.

#### Simple layout

The choice of placing resistors in parallel, leads to a very simple layout of the attenuator sections. There’s NO need for a PCB. hi.

#### Power

Although all sections are designed for a power of nominal power of 1,5 W (6 W max), this line up is the best to distribute the input power over the sections. To reduce the number of resistors, I chose to use good available (metal film) resistors of 2 watts. Please notice that the resistors with a star can be 250 mW resistors. All attenuator sections are designed for an maximum input power of 6 watts. This power can only be used for about 20 seconds. Without cooling the resistors will get hot in a short while.

#### Accuracy

With two or more resistors from the E12-series in parallel, any value can be made accurately. In practice the accuracy of the resistors will be about 2%, so the accuracy of the attenuator is very good. The resistor value of the combination is most of the time within 1% of the theoretical value. The measured accuracy of the 20 dB attenuator sections is 0.1 dB. The other sections are even more accurate.

#### Fast in QSO’s

A simple way to reduce the power of your QRP set to milliwatt level, without modifying the set, is the use of attenuators. The combination of 3 dB, 7 dB, 10 dB and 20 dB is fast to switch, when you want to **increase** your power in QSO’s. In one move, one attenuator section is switched OFF and an other is switched ON, to increase the power with a step of 3 db or 4 dB.

### 10 dB Power Attenuators

The 10 dB attenuators shown here, are all built with good available 1 W resistors of the E12-series. Each of the 4 attenuators is designed for a different value of input power. They cover the power spectrum from 500 mW to 5 watts.

The higher the input power the more resistors are needed. The power of each attenuator is the **nominal power**.

In the design of the Power Attenuator on this website, I have chosen a Derating of 25 %. this means that the nominal power is 1/4 of the Maximum Power. Or the Maximum power is 4 times the Nominal power.

and with no cooling of the resistors, they will easily become hot in a short while.

The basic 10 dB attenuator consists of 6 resistors and is good for a maximum input power of 500 mW – 2 W max.

The attenuators are built with resistor of 1 W. The resistors that are designated with a star* (e.g. 2700*) can be resistor 1/4 W.

The attenuator that is built with 9 resistors is suitable for 1.6 W. This is a maximum power of 6.4 W.

The attenuators are built with resistor of 1 W. The resistors that are designated with a star* (e.g. 2700*) can be resistor 1/4 W.

With 13 resistors the attenuator is good for 2.8 W (maximum power 11.2 W).

Built with a total of 20 inexpensive resistors the attenuator can handle a input power of 5 W or a maximum power of 20 W.

### Power distribution in power attenuators

The 4 schematics below, show the resistor values and the power distribution in Pi-type, 50 ohm attenuators of 3 dB, 7 dB, 10 dB and 20 dB, for an **nominal input power of 5 watts**. The resistors R1 to R12 have values that can not found in the E12-series.

But with two or more resistors from the **E12-series** in **parallel**, we can make **any** **value** we want.

The attenuators have to dissipate all the power that is not delivered to the output. Please notice that if the attenuator has to dissipate a power of 5 watts continuously. It is good practice to design the power attenuator that it can handle 20 watts. Specially when the power attenuator has no cooling.

The attenuator of 20 dB has to dissipate the highest power of the 4 attenuators, since the power to the output is only 50 mW.

The attenuator of 3 dB has to dissipate the lowest power, since half of the power is delivered to the output.

The **3 dB** attenuator reduces the power to 1/2. Half of the power is directly transferred to the output. The other half of the power will be dissipated by the attenuator. R2 dissipates 1/4 of the input power.

The **7 dB** attenuator reduces the power to 1/5. R4 and R5 dissipate **each** 1/3 of the input power.

The **10 dB** attenuator reduces the power to 1/10. R7 dissipates half of the input power and R8 dissipates 1/3 of the input power.

The **20 dB** attenuator reduces the power to 1/100. R10 dissipates most of the input power and R11 dissipates 1/6 of the input power. With an input power of 5 W, the resistor R10 has to dissipate 4.1 W.

### The PA1B 3 dB, 7 dB, 10 dB and 20 dB attenuator

This attenuator is very fast in QSO’s. You never miss an opportunity to answer a CQ.

Later vervangen door het Zwart/Wit plaatje met weerstanden van 2 watt

#### Fast in QSO’s

A simple way to reduce the power of your QRP set to milliwatt level, without modifying the set, is the use of attenuators. The combination of 3 dB, 7 dB, 10 dB and 20 dB is fast to switch, when you want to **increase** your power in QSO’s. In one move, one attenuator section is switched OFF and an other is switched ON, to increase the power with a step of 3 db or 4 dB.

#### Power

Although all sections are designed for a power of 6 watts, this line up is the best to distribute the input power over the sections. To reduce the number of resistors, I chose to use good available (metal film) resistors of 2 watts. Please notice that the resistors with a star can be 250 mW resistors. All attenuator sections are designed for an maximum input power of 6 watts. This power can only be used for about 20 seconds. Without cooling the resistors will get hot in a short while.

#### Accuracy

With two or more resistors from the E12-series in parallel, any value can be made accurately. In practice the accuracy of the resistors will be about 2%, so the accuracy of the attenuator is very good. The resistor value of the combination is most of the time within 1% of the theoretical value. The measured accuracy of the 20 dB attenuator sections is 0.1 dB. The other sections are even more accurate.

#### Simple layout

The choice of placing resistors in parallel, leads to a very simple layout of the attenuator sections. There’s NO need for a PCB. hi.

### Fast and accurate 40 dB Power Attenuators for 1.25 W, 2.5 W or 5 W

Fast and accurate 40 dB Power Attenuators for 1.25 W, 2.5 W or 5 W with resistors of 1/4 W, 1/2 W or 1 W.

The shown Pi-type, 50 ohm attenuators are very accurate and designed for an input power of 1.25 W to 5 watts. They are built with induction free resistors from the E12-series. The attenuators are placed in cascade. The attenuators can be switched on or off. With the switch in the lower position the signal will go through the attenuator.

All four attenuators must be able to dissipate the **same** **power**, because they can be switched **independently**.

#### Power of the resistors

The table below shows the maximum continuous input power for attenuators built with resistors of 1/4 W, 1/2 W and 1 W. E.g. an attenuator for 20 dB built with resistor of 1/4 W can dissipate 1.25 W. The higher the power of the resistors the higher the maximum input power of the attenuators. If you build these attenuators with resistors of ½ watt, then the maximum continuous input power is 2.5 watt. Or 5 watts with resistors of 1 W.

Power in CW This table gives maximum input power in CW. Since the average power in CW is about half of the continuous power, the power can be twice the continuous power. If you build these attenuators with resistors of ½ watt, then the maximum input power in CW is 5 watt. Or 10 watts in CW with resistors of 1 W.

#### Asymmetrical attenuator

Please notice that this attenuator is asymmetrical. Input and output can NOT be reversed.

### The PA1B 3 dB, 7 dB, 10 dB and 20 dB attenuator

This attenuator is very fast in QSO’s. You never miss an opportunity to answer a CQ.

#### Fast in QSO’s

A simple way to reduce the power of your QRP set to milliwatt level, without modifying the set, is the use of attenuators. The combination of 3 dB, 7 dB, 10 dB and 20 dB is fast to switch, when you want to **increase** your power in QSO’s. In one move, one attenuator section is switched OFF and an other is switched ON, to increase the power with a step of 3 db or 4 dB.

#### Power

Although all sections are designed for a power of 6 watts, this line up is the best to distribute the input power over the sections. To reduce the number of resistors, I chose to use good available (metal film) resistors of 2 watts. Please notice that the resistors with a star can be 250 mW resistors. All attenuator sections are designed for an maximum input power of 6 watts. This power can only be used for about 20 seconds. Without cooling the resistors will get hot in a short while.

#### Accuracy

With two or more resistors from the E12-series in parallel, any value can be made accurately. In practice the accuracy of the resistors will be about 2%, so the accuracy of the attenuator is very good. The resistor value of the combination is most of the time within 1% of the theoretical value. The measured accuracy of the 20 dB attenuator sections is 0.1 dB. The other sections are even more accurate

#### Simple layout

The choice of placing resistors in parallel, leads to a very simple layout of the attenuator sections. There’s NO need for a PCB. hi.

### Fast and accurate 40 dB Power Attenuators for 1.25 W, 2.5 W or 5 W

Fast and accurate 40 dB Power Attenuators for 1.25 W, 2.5 W or 5 W with resistors of 1/4 W, 1/2 W or 1 W.

The shown Pi-type, 50 ohm attenuators are very accurate and designed for an input power of 1.25 W to 5 watts. They are built with induction free resistors from the E12-series. The attenuators are placed in cascade. The attenuators can be switched on or off. With the switch in the lower position the signal will go through the attenuator.

All four attenuators must be able to dissipate the **same** **power**, because they can be switched **independently**.

#### Power of the resistors

The table below shows the maximum continuous input power for attenuators built with resistors of 1/4 W, 1/2 W and 1 W. E.g. an attenuator for 20 dB built with resistor of 1/4 W can dissipate 1.25 W. The higher the power of the resistors the higher the maximum input power of the attenuators. If you build these attenuators with resistors of ½ watt, then the maximum continuous input power is 2.5 watt. Or 5 watts with resistors of 1 W.

Power in CW This table gives maximum input power in CW. Since the average power in CW is about half of the continuous power, the power can be twice the continuous power. If you build these attenuators with resistors of ½ watt, then the maximum input power in CW is 5 watt. Or 10 watts in CW with resistors of 1 W.

#### Asymmetrical attenuator

Please notice that this attenuator is asymmetrical. Input and output can NOT be reversed.

#### Reserve exemplaar – Kan later weg

## PA1B Power attenuators

Accurate attenuators use very precise resistor values, that are not available in the E12-series. But with two or more resistors from the E12-series in parallel, you can make **any** value.

In the **PA1B** Power attenuators, I use more than two resistors in parallel, so the attenuator can handle much more power. The use of resistors in parallel leads to a very simple layout.

Attenuators can dissipate the **nominal **power for a long time. But without cooling, the resistors of your attenuator will get very hot, when you unleash the **maximum **power for 20 seconds or more.

A power attenuator is an attenuator that can dissipate a certain power.

### 10 dB power attenuators

The 10 dB attenuators shown here, are all built with good available 1 W resistors of the E12-series. Each of the 4 attenuators is designed for a different value of input power. They cover the power spectrum from 500 mW to 5 watts. The higher the input power the more resistors are needed. Please notice that the power of each attenuator is the nominal power and with no cooling of the resistors, they will easily become hot in a short while.

The basic 10 dB attenuator consists of 6 resistors and is good for a maximum input power of 500 mW – 2 W max.

The attenuators are built with resistor of 1 W. The resistors that are designated with a star* (e.g. 2700*) can be resistor 1/4 W.

The attenuator that is built with 9 resistors is suitable for 1.6 W. This is a maximum power of 6.4 W.

With 13 resistors the attenuator is good for 2.8 W (maximum power 11.2 W).

Built with a total of 20 inexpensive resistors the attenuator can handle a input power of 5 W or a maximum power of 20 W.

### Power distribution in power attenuators

The 4 schematics below, show the resistor values and the power distribution in Pi-type, 50 ohm attenuators of 3 dB, 7 dB, 10 dB and 20 dB, for an **nominal input power of 5 watts**. The resistors R1 to R12 have values that can not found in the E12-series.

But with two or more resistors from the **E12-series** in **parallel**, we can make **any** **value** we want.

The attenuators have to dissipate all the power that is not delivered to the output. Please notice that if the attenuator has to dissipate a power of 5 watts continuously. It is good practice to design the power attenuator that it can handle 20 watts. Specially when the power attenuator has no cooling.

The attenuator of 20 dB has to dissipate the highest power of the 4 attenuators, since the power to the output is only 50 mW.

The attenuator of 3 dB has to dissipate the lowest power, since half of the power is delivered to the output.

The **3 dB** attenuator reduces the power to 1/2. Half of the power is directly transferred to the output. The other half of the power will be dissipated by the attenuator. R2 dissipates 1/4 of the input power.

The **7 dB** attenuator reduces the power to 1/5. R4 and R5 dissipate **each** 1/3 of the input power.

The **10 dB** attenuator reduces the power to 1/10. R7 dissipates half of the input power and R8 dissipates 1/3 of the input power.

The **20 dB** attenuator reduces the power to 1/100. R10 dissipates most of the input power and R11 dissipates 1/6 of the input power. With an input power of 5 W, the resistor R10 has to dissipate 4.1 W.

### The PA1B 3 dB, 7 dB, 10 dB and 20 dB attenuator

This attenuator is very fast in QSO’s. You never miss an opportunity to answer a CQ.

#### Fast in QSO’s

**increase** your power in QSO’s. In one move, one attenuator section is switched OFF and an other is switched ON, to increase the power with a step of 3 db or 4 dB.

#### Power

Although all sections are designed for a power of 6 watts, this line up is the best to distribute the input power over the sections. To reduce the number of resistors, I chose to use good available (metal film) resistors of 2 watts. Please notice that the resistors with a star can be 250 mW resistors. All attenuator sections are designed for an maximum input power of 6 watts. This power can only be used for about 20 seconds. Without cooling the resistors will get hot in a short while.

#### Accuracy

With two or more resistors from the E12-series in parallel, any value can be made accurately. In practice the accuracy of the resistors will be about 2%, so the accuracy of the attenuator is very good. The resistor value of the combination is most of the time within 1% of the theoretical value. The measured accuracy of the 20 dB attenuator sections is 0.1 dB. The other sections are even more accurate

#### Simple layout

### Fast and accurate 40 dB Power Attenuators for 1.25 W, 2.5 W or 5 W

Fast and accurate 40 dB Power Attenuators for 1.25 W, 2.5 W or 5 W with resistors of 1/4 W, 1/2 W or 1 W.

The shown Pi-type, 50 ohm attenuators are very accurate and designed for an input power of 1.25 W to 5 watts. They are built with induction free resistors from the E12-series. The attenuators are placed in cascade. The attenuators can be switched on or off. With the switch in the lower position the signal will go through the attenuator.

All four attenuators must be able to dissipate the **same** **power**, because they can be switched **independently**.

#### Power of the resistors

The table below shows the maximum continuous input power for attenuators built with resistors of 1/4 W, 1/2 W and 1 W. E.g. an attenuator for 20 dB built with resistor of 1/4 W can dissipate 1.25 W. The higher the power of the resistors the higher the maximum input power of the attenuators. If you build these attenuators with resistors of ½ watt, then the maximum continuous input power is 2.5 watt. Or 5 watts with resistors of 1 W.

Power in CW This table gives maximum input power in CW. Since the average power in CW is about half of the continuous power, the power can be twice the continuous power. If you build these attenuators with resistors of ½ watt, then the maximum input power in CW is 5 watt. Or 10 watts in CW with resistors of 1 W.

#### Asymmetrical attenuator

Please notice that this attenuator is asymmetrical. Input and output can NOT be reversed.